By Amit Kapoor & Mukul Anand

Groundwater, a vital resource essential for sustaining agriculture, rural water supply, and urban consumption, is rapidly depleting in India. With overreliance on groundwater, constituting 62% of irrigation and 85% of rural water supply, India faces an imminent threat exacerbated by population growth, industrial demands, and urbanisation. A University of Michigan study projects a tripling of groundwater depletion rates by 2080, primarily driven by climate-induced intensified withdrawal for irrigation. It highlights the oversight in earlier projections and calls for urgent policy interventions to mitigate this crisis. 

The paper was published with the Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister and can be read at

© 2024 Institute for Competitiveness, India


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