By Amit Kapoor, Mukul Anand & Khushi Joshi

Over the past 75 years since Independence, India has made consistent strides in infrastructure development across various sectors such as transportation, housing, commercial development, telecom, and sanitation. Recognising infrastructure as a key driver of socioeconomic progress, the government has invested significantly in what is termed as ‘social overhead capital’, aiming to extend development to even the remotest corners of the nation. This strategic approach has involved dedicated budget allocations, cross-subsidisation of revenue-generating infrastructure, and focused program delivery, resulting in expanded physical transportation networks, enhanced connectivity, localised service provision, and increased digital penetration.

The paper was published with the Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister and can be read at

© 2024 Institute for Competitiveness, India


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